Obesity can simply be defined as having an excessive amount of body fat and it is so much more than just a concern of your appearance. It is the state of possessing a complex medical disease and also has the potential to enhance the risk of your developing other health-related problems such as type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, arthritis, heart disease or stroke, certain types of cancers, and severe obstructive sleep apnea. Therefore, to avoid this, people go some lengths such as diet, exercise, or obesity surgery. However, obesity surgery is only performed on the condition that you’ve tried to lose weight by improving your exercise habits and healthily dieting.


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Obesity has the potential to decrease the quality of your life

You may feel like you are not able to perform daily activities due to being overweight. You may experience depression, sexual problems, guilt, social isolation and even worse, you may encounter discrimination. Nevertheless, you can take steps to avoid all of these obstacles and other weight-related health problems to come. All you should do is to exercise regularly, follow a healthy nutrition plan, try to choose low-calorie and nutrient-dense food, monitor your weight, and most important of all, be consistent. Sticking to your diet even as much as possible brings you the long-term success. You also should be wary of quick solutions. You may be tempted by fad dieting plans that offer the fastest weight loss but however useful they may be in the short term, the long term results will not be as good as the former because you are more likely to regain all the weights you will lose if you follow such diets.

There are biological, behavioral, metabolic, and hormonal factors that have an impact on body weight. So, one can experience obesity due to a compound of inherited elements, combined with the environment, a particular diet, and exercise preferences. But it usually occurs when a person takes in more calories than he burns through exercise or everyday activities. As a result, the body stores these excess calories as fat and the person becomes overweight.

Family Inheritance:

The inherited genes have an impact on the amount of fat you store and in which parts of your body it is distributed. Genes also play a crucial role in how much calories your body burns and converts food into energy. Apart from the inheritance and shared genetics, obesity problem may also occur in families because of their similar eating habits. But these factors do not indicate that you are destined to be an obese person. You can reduce the perils of obesity through being physically active and taking in healthy nutrition.

Sedentary Lifestyle:

If you live an inactive life, it is easier for you to gain weight because the calories you take in outweigh how much you burn through daily activities.

Unhealthy Eating Habits:

An unhealthy eating habit involves nutrients high in calories, fast food and oversized portions. Also some beverages such as sugared soft drinks significantly contribute to being overweight.


Obesity can also be caused by some drugs such as antidepressants and diabetes medications

Economic Factors:

Avoiding obesity may be a real hardship if you do not have access to proper food due to your financial status.


As you become older, your hormones tend to change and if you live an inactive lifestyle, your risk of developing obesity increases. To avoid this situation, it is important that you control what you eat and try to be more physically active during the day.

Obesity is diagnosed when a body mass index, also known as BMI, is 30 or more. BMI is a weight measuring system performed in line with people`s height and helps them decide whether obesity surgery is needed.

To calculate your body mass index, you should divide your weight in pounds by your height in inches squared and multiply by 703. You can also divide your weight in kilograms by your height in meters squared. Having a body mass index below 18.5 means you are underweight, between 18.5 and 24.9 is normal, between 25 and 29.9 is overweight, and having a BMI of 30 or more is an indicator of obesity. Nevertheless, such people as muscular athletes are likely to have a body mass index in the obesity class even though they do not have an excessive amount of body fat.

Obesity can be examined in three main categories:

Class 1 obesity is having a BMI between 30-35, Class 2 obesity is a BMI between 35-40, and Class 3 obesity is having a BMI of 40 or even more. Classes 2 and 3, also identified as severe obesity, are usually troublesome to handle with regime and workout alone. As this situation is beyond the control of such people, most of them turn to obesity surgery.

Another thing that may stem from obesity is some kind of mental problems. ​For example, people who are diagnosed with obesity have a %55 higher risk of developing depression. In society obese people are not thought to fulfill the beauty standards –especially in an era in which there are online social platforms that are based on liking each other’s photos.

For this reason, obese people may experience exclusion from society just because of how they look. That exclusion –both in real life and social media- will probably make the person feel insufficient and it may lead to sadness, anxiety, and depression in the long run. As the first impression of a person is mostly based on his physical appearance, obese people may think they have to change their look by losing weight in order to be loved.

Whether they are liked or not, obesity surgery will for sure help changing their appearance. Once the calorie intake of a person is reduced, they will start to burn stored fats and in time, they will have a thinner stomach, hips, face, arms, and legs.

On the other hand, even though there are lots of big size clothing stores today, most of the clothes are being manufactured for normal-weight people. Losing weight and get the chance of deciding from multiple choices of clothes will of course have an effect on the person both physically and mentally. Rather than big loose t-shirts and pants, wearing a regular fit one will make a person feel better about his look and boost his or her confidence as experiencing that shift from the bigger size to the smaller.

Just as the physical difficulties of obesity, the psychological effects that come with it may also turn a person’s life into torture. Experiencing discrimination –especially among teens and children-, not being able to participate in physical activities and failing at weight loss may worsen one’s mood. As a result of these, people may use eating as a coping mechanism against too much pressure and stress and eventually may find themselves in a paradox.

Another result of obesity-caused-depression is one’s starving himself/herself to lose weight. Such people tend to think that not eating at all would make them lose weight but in fact, poor nutrition will bring other health problems with it, in addition to unhealthy weight loss.

Apart from depression, people may experience sexual dysfunctions, insomnia, personality disorder, and some other insecurities. Along with obesity surgery and diets, people can get psychotherapy treatment for weight loss.

In children, encountering regular exclusion and being made fun of can lead to a high level of stress and they may show destructive attitudes like harming themselves by trying to cut the fat off their body with something sharp. Families should support and guard their children in case of these kinds of situations.

People who are diagnosed with obesity tend not to like their bodies.

They may find it strange or not likable, as they would compare their bodies with other normal weighted people. As a result, they will think that the others would find them strange and gross too, which will lead them to avoid social interactions and become an asocial human being.

One’s being subject to jokes and being made fun of constantly may lead him or her to sleep in order to escape from reality. However, this is also bad as insufficient physical activity will increase fat gain.

Those people, who are diagnosed with obesity generally tend to seek ways of weight loss. Here, some solutions like consulting a dietitian and starting to exercise regularly, or some other surgical solutions like bariatric surgery, also known as obesity surgery or weight loss surgery, may get involved.

Obesity surgeries, which are collectively known as bariatric surgery, are major operations performed in order to aid individuals who have failed to lose weight by exercising and dieting or people with severe health problems because of their weight. Certain procedures limit how much one should eat, while others reduce the body’s capacity to digest nutrients. But the fundamental principle of obesity surgery is to make changes in your digestive system to help you lose weight. It does so by restricting the amount of food intake and decreasing the digestion of nutrients in the stomach and intestines.

The digestion begins in the mouth. There, food is chewed and combined with saliva and other enzyme-containing secretions. Then the food enters the stomach where it is mixed with digestive liquids and broken into pieces so that nutrients can be absorbed. After that, digestion happens quicker as food moves into the first part of the small intestine, also known as duodenum, where it is mixed with bile and pancreatic liquid.

Obesity surgery is aimed at modifying or hindering this process in order that food is not absorbed in the typical way. A reduction in the number of nutrients and calories absorbed helps patients lose weight and lower their risk of obesity-related health perils or ailments.

Thanks to obesity surgery, patients have the chance to get back to normal weight, and also the perils of disorders brought along with obesity is reduced. Besides, bariatric surgery lowers mortality rates for sufferers with severe obesity, especially if combined with healthy food intake and lifestyle changes after the operation. These are the reasons why obesity surgery plays a crucial role in the treatment of obesity.

The particulars of your surgery range depending on your circumstances, the type of weight-loss surgery you should undergo, and the hospital’s or doctor’s methods. Several weight-loss operations are performed with conventional methods. However, most weight-loss surgeries now are done employing invasive procedures such as laparoscopic surgery. A laparoscope is a tiny, tubular gadget with a camera attached to the tip of it. The laparoscope is inserted through small incisions in the belly. The small camera on the tip of the laparoscope enables the operator to observe and operate inside your stomach without making the conventional large cuts. Although laparoscopic surgery shortens the healing time, it is not suitable for every person.

The studies on obesity surgery subjects indicate that patients who have experienced bariatric surgery are less likely to acquire the types of diseases associated with obesity when compared to victims who have not undergone surgery. The rationale for this is that losing weight through dieting and workout results in 7-10% of weight-loss while bariatric surgery warrants 80% of weight-loss when supported by certain lifestyle adjustments. That means you also need to make lasting changes to your nutrition and do exercise regularly to help ensure the long term benefits of bariatric surgery.

Obesity surgery is not proper for every individual who is overweight. One must first meet certain guidelines to be eligible for the weight-loss operation. They also must be eager to make permanent changes to lead a more salutary lifestyle because they may be asked to engage in long-term follow-up programs that comprise monitoring their diet, lifestyle, habits, and medical conditions. In the pre-operative stage, eating and drinking habits of patients, their lifestyle, and the status of other health complications are taken into consideration.

Here are some prerequisites for being eligible for the obesity surgery:

-The surgery is an alternative for you if you have a body mass index over 40 which is severe obesity or if your body mass index is between 35-40 and you have a serious health problem related to obesity such as type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure or severe sleep apnea. Also in some cases, though having a BMI of 30 to 34, if you have a weight-related health issue, you can undergo certain types of weight-loss surgeries.

  • You must be suffering from obesity for at least 5 years.
  • You must not be suffering from endocrinal diseases.
  • You must not be suffering from any addictions such as drug or alcohol
  • You must have a complete understanding and adaptability and be coordinative with the team in the post-operative period.
  • You must not have a condition preventing the surgical operation.
  • You must be at the ages of between 18 and 60

If you qualify for the surgery, you will be given some instructions by the hospital on how to get prepared for your surgery. You may be required to undergo some lab tests. For instance: A complete physical exam, blood tests and such to make sure you are healthy enough to have the surgery. You may also be required to visit other health care providers to make sure if you have any medical problems such as high blood pressure, heart or lung problems.

They may offer you classes to help you learn about the surgery and the potential problems that may occur afterward and you may be asked to start a physical activity program. Additionally, you may be instructed to limit what you eat, drink, smoke and medications to take. If you smoke, you must stop smoking because it increases the risk of possible problems and slows the recovery period.

As with anything, bariatric surgery possesses several hazards. So, before having surgery, you must talk to your surgeon about the potential pros and cons of the procedure.

These risks may include excessive bleeding, infection, unfavorable reactions to anesthesia, blood clots in the leg (deep vein thrombosis) or lungs (pulmonary embolism), breathing problems, leakages in the gastrointestinal system and death (although rare).

In the long term, you may encounter different complications such as bowel obstruction, dumping syndrome which leads to diarrhea, flushing, lightheadedness, nausea or vomiting, gallstones (tiny, hard stones that form in the gallbladder), hernias, low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), malnutrition, ulcers, acid reflux, not getting sufficient vitamins and minerals from your diet – you will presumably need to take supplements for the rest of your life after surgery, being left with excess folds of skin – you may need further surgery to remove these and it is not usually available free of charge, the gastric band slipping out of place, food leaking from the join between the abdomen and small intestine, or the gut being barred or narrowed.

There are different types of obesity surgeries. The most common ones are Gastric Bypass, Gastric Sleeve, Gastric Balloon.

Gastric Bypass: In this operation, the top part of your abdomen is joined to the small intestine so that you could feel full a lot quicker and do not gain so many calories from what you consume.

Gastric Sleeve (Sleeve Gastrectomy)In this procedure, some parts of your stomach are eliminated so that you cannot eat as much as you used to do before because you feel full a lot sooner.

Gastric BalloonIn this operation, a soft silicone balloon is temporarily embedded into your stomach to partially fill it so that you feel full even after small portions of food.

Each of these types of obesity surgeries help you lose a considerable amount of weight. But each one has their benefits and disadvantages to consider. For instance: it is way easier and quicker to lose weight after a gastric bypass or a gastric sleeve operation when compared to other operations. But the risk of experiencing serious health complications is higher in gastric bypass and sleeve surgeries. So, if you are thinking of having a weight-loss surgery, you better first talk to your doctor to find out which type is the best and well suited for you.

After the Obesity Surgery

After the obesity surgery, not only will your weight decrease but also your quality of life will increase but there are several steps a patient needs to follow after the surgery. The first step is staying in the hospital for 1 to 4 days. Within this period, the fluid and calorie need of the patient will be provided by transfusing the required liquids into the patient’s body. After 4 days, the patient can be fed orally. If there is no problem with surgical incisions, the patient is examined and discharged. The second base takes a month, and within this period, the patient will need a nutrition plan to follow. This period begins with clear liquids. Varying to the body mass index of the patient, the patient should take liquids 2.5-3.5 L daily, and 1.5 L of it must be consist of water. After following a diet based on liquids for a month, the patient can start to eat mashed foods. In order to prevent constipation, renal calculus, and other diseases related to dehydration, patients must take a sufficient amount of liquid after obesity surgery. And also, the patient will need to take the supplements below to maintain a healthy life:

Multivitamin, Vitamin D, Calcium, Iron, Vitamin B12

Another period of this weight loss surgery lasts about 3 to 6 months and it is important to adapt gradually to regular nutritions during this period.  After six months of obesity surgery, the patient starts to eat regular food. The most crucial factor about following this diet is to get the right and sufficient amount of protein and liquid. A patient should take 60-80 mg of protein per day, but this may vary depending on the patient or operation.

Post-surgery Physical Activity

It is important to do exercises in order to maintain weight after bariatric surgery. The type and the frequency of the exercises can change patient to patient. Exercises are also crucial to pursue a healthy and high-quality life after weight loss. A patient should start doing exercises after the doctor’s permission. Patients can walk or climb stairs after the surgery, there is no limit. But it is important not to lift or carry heavy objects in the first 5 or 6 weeks. Patients should avoid sitting for hours, it is important to move around and be physically active during the recovery period.

Pregnancy And Birth Control Pill

Women are usually recommended avoid getting pregnant for about 12 to 18 months after the bariatric surgery which is a period of most significant weight loss after the surgery. The reason why is that obesity surgery can affect your vitamin and mineral levels. If your levels are low while being pregnant, there may be some complications that could harm your baby. It may be a good idea to use contraceptive pills that best suit you.

Drinking Alcohol

These beverages contain lots of calories, so doctors do not recommend drinking alcohol after obesity surgery.

Follow-Up Programs

After the obesity surgery, you will be required to attend regular follow-up appointments for the rest of your life. These appointments will usually be in a weight loss surgery clinic for at least the first 2 years, but later that, you may just need a check-up with a GP once a year. The contents of the program may include some blood tests to check your vitamin and mineral levels, an overall health check, emotional or psychological support in addition to advices on a healthy diet, some supplements such as vitamins and how to exercise properly.

Undergoing such a major surgery is a draining experience both mentally and physically. So, apart from all these health checks and tests, you will be given any kind of support. It may be either an emotional one or something different.

If Obesity Surgery Does Not Work

As well as other types of surgery, problems may occur in bariatric surgeries. Failed bariatric surgery may show symptoms such as diarrhea, weight gain, and other gastrointestinal disorders. There are so many reasons why a bariatric surgery doesn’t work, and some of them are listed below:

-Weight gain

For example, some patients regain weight within 1-2 years after surgery, in that case, they should consult their dietitians before undergoing an operation again.

– Renal calculus

Another problem that may occur after bariatric surgery is renal calculus, and in order to prevent this and other kidney-related diseases, patients must take a sufficient amount of water and go to the follow-up appointments regularly.

– Not following the post-operational diet

Patients need to follow a diet after obesity surgery and throughout their lives. The first six months after the surgery is crucial for the patient and if the patient does not follow the diet doctor gave to him/her, it may have consequences that will affect the patient’s situation and he/she might need to undergo an operation again.

– Insufficient fluid intake

Fluid intake is important not only for patients who have had bariatric surgery but also for all people. But these patients should be more careful about taking the right amount of liquid. Water clears the body from toxins, so it is important to stay hydrated.

– Not doing the required amount of exercise

If a patient does not exercise daily, he/she might gain weight again and might need to undergo surgery for the second time.

– Not taking medicines regularly

Medicines play a huge role in every surgery’s post-op period. Patients should take their medicines regularly to fully recover from bariatric surgery.

– Vitamins and Supplements

Patients must take vitamins and supplements such as Multivitamin, Vitamin D, Calcium, Iron, Vitamin B12 (as mentioned above) which help recovering.

– Not taking enough protein

Protein intake is beneficial to weight loss. Patients need to take 60-80 mg of protein to maintain the weight and health after the obesity surgery, and since they have to follow a diet that begins with liquid only and then pureed-soft foods, they need to take as much protein as they can to reach 60-80 mg.

– Healing process

If a patient does not stick to the doctor’s recommendations, the healing process could get worse, and just like other reasons, this could lead to revision surgery. A patient needs to adapt to the new lifestyle after obesity surgery.

– Other complications

There could be complications during bariatric surgery, which may lead to the situation that a second surgery is necessary. There could be an infection, etc. on the incision or there could be leakage, and these may affect the patient and the healing process badly.

-Alcohol intake

Alcohol is harmful to human health and it is much more harmful to a person who has had obesity surgery because these surgeries are done to help a person with obesity to lose weight. These beverages are rich in calories and it is why alcoholic beverages are more harmful to those people with obesity. If a patient continues to drink this kind of beverage after the surgery, he/she will gain weight again, and this may also lead to another surgery or treatment.

-Unhealthy Nutrition

Eating unhealthy foods (or foods that are rich in calories but unhealthy) after the obesity surgery and not following the diet, eating foods that will disturb the stomach can cause problems. Chocolates, cakes, and foods similar to them, refined foods, and foods high in sugar should be restricted by the patient’s dietician or the patient should not consume that kind of food.

What Is Revision Surgery?

Revision surgeries are operations performed for complications such as weight gain or leakage after obesity surgery. The most important reason for those surgeries is weight gain. Revisional surgery is performed to change or modify a prior bariatric surgery.

Obesity Surgery for Diabetic Patients

(laparoscopic) surgery is applied to patients with type 2 diabetes. Obesity surgeries have a lot of benefits, it balances the blood sugar. A monogastric bypass is applied to people with diabetes. In this method, the person’s food intake is restricted by narrowing the stomach.

Sleep Apnea and Obesity Surgery

Obesity can cause sleep apnea and other sleep-related diseases. Not getting enough sleep, not sleeping at the right time, etc. can lead to weight gain and weight gain can cause obesity.

There is a strong correlation between obesity and sleep apnea. If obesity increases, the severity of sleep apnea also increases. When a person does not get enough sleep, he/she wants to eat more, and that can lead to weight gain. According to a research, approximately 70-80% of individuals with sleep apnea have obesity. Obesity and weight can make it harder to breathe during sleep. Obesity causes sleep apnea; and sleep apnea causes hypoxia, and hypoxia can increase the risk of other diseases like hypertension, ischemic heart disease, cardiac dysrhythmia.

Just like obesity, sleep apnea also impairs heart health and leads to cardiovascular diseases, affects people with diabetes badly, and sometimes sleep apnea can cause a stroke. With obesity surgery, the risk and possibility of having sleep apnea decreases. Obesity surgery increases the quality of sleep. In order to treat sleep apnea, patient should continue to exercise after obesity surgery.

In conclusion, ​obesity surgery or in its other name bariatric surgery, is a procedure in which you get some things changed in your digestive system so that you could full sooner.

It works by making your stomach or intestine smaller so, your body will absorb fewer calories from the foods and beverages. However reasonable it may sound at first, ​one shouldn’t immediately have the obesity surgery. If having a healthy diet and exercising regularly do not work or one immediately gains back the weight that was lost, then the bariatric surgery should be considered. And of course, the person should keep feeding on healthy foods and exercise after the surgery too.